Apple Service Providers have the ability to look up all sorts of information about your Mac just from the serial number, however that site is not available to the public. I’ve stumbled across a website that tries to mirror that information for the public-

All about your Mac

It includes a lot of great information, including the site of the factory where you machine was most likely made. It also has a feature where you can report a machine as stolen, which is a great idea since Apple has said yes/no/yes to recording stolen serials over the years. Check it out!